Kidney stones can be brought on by urine that contains too many salts and minerals. Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are hard deposits made of crystal-forming elements found in urine, such as calcium, uric acid, and oxalate. The size of the stones varies; some are too small, others are a few inches across, and still others are big enough to obstruct an entire kidney.
Smaller renal stones frequently have no accompanying symptoms. Without causing any issues, the stones can pass from the kidneys through the ureters, bladder, and urethra. Additionally, drinking a lot of water makes it much easier to pass these stones.
Larger kidney stones, however, show symptoms as they pass from one section of the urinary tract to another. As an illustration, consider the movement of a sizable or large stone from the kidney to the ureter. It produces agonizing pain and obstruction right away. Such stones need to be broken up and removed using a procedure like shock wave lithotripsy.
Until a kidney stone moves around or enters one of the ureters, symptoms are typically not present. The tubes that link the kidneys and bladder are known as ureters.
If a kidney stone becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be very painful. At that point, you may experience these symptoms:
- Severe, sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs
- Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
- Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
- Pain or burning sensation while urinating
Other signs and symptoms may include:
- Pink, red or brown urine
- Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
- A persistent need to urinate, urinating more often than usual or urinating in small amounts
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fever and chills if an infection is present
Pain caused by a kidney stone may change — for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity — as the stone moves through your urinary tract.
So what are the signs that you might have kidney stones?1. Pain in your lower back, side, or belly
Kidney stones produce one of the most severe types of pain—comparable only to getting stabbed by a knife or pain during childbirth. The pain tends to begin when the stone moves into the ureter, causing a blockage and pressure buildup in the kidney. This pressure activates nerve fibers to send pain signals to the brain.
The pain starts suddenly and changes location and intensity as the stone moves. It also comes and goes in waves, with each wave lasting a few minutes, disappearing, and then coming back. The pain usually occurs along the side and back, below the ribs, but can radiate to the belly and groin area as the stone moves down the urinary tract.
2. Tossing and turning
The sudden episodes of kidney stone pain last 20-60 minutes. But they are so severe that they don’t allow you to sit still. So you’re forced to move around, toss and turn, in order to find a more comfortable position.
3. Burning sensation during urination
When a kidney stone reaches the junction between the ureter and bladder, it causes sharp or burning pain during urination. It is quite easy to mistake the stone for a urinary tract infection (UTI). Of course, it is also common to have an infection alongside a kidney stone.
Apart from pain during urination, kidney stones can cause urinary frequency and urgency as they pass to the lower part of the urinary tract. That’s because a stone irritates the walls of the bladder and causes contraction, resulting in the urge to pass urine. You may find yourself running to the bathroom frequently or feeling the urge to go throughout the day and night.
4. Nausea and vomiting
Kidney stones can cause obstruction of urine flow. This makes urine to back up, stretching or swelling the kidneys. Eventually, this may lead to nausea and vomiting.
Also, due to the excruciating pain associated with kidney stones, you may experience nausea and vomiting as one of the responses.
Equally, due to the sharing of nerve connections between the kidneys and the gastrointestinal tract, the presence of stones in the urinary tract disrupts nerves in the intestinal tract, resulting in stomach upset.
5. Blood in urine
Kidney stones irritate the delicate tissues that line the urinary tract, including inside the ureter. As a result, there may be significant, microscopic, or moderate bleeding, which results in blood in urine (hematuria).
So as a sign of kidney stones, your urine may look grossly red, pink, or brown. You may also have blood in urine, but in quantities that are too small to notice with the naked eye. In that case, a urine test may be necessary to detect the urine.6. Fever and chills
Though fever is not a common sign of kidney stones, it may occur when the stones block urine flow or if the stones cause conditions that allow for an infection. Like fever, chills tend to occur due to an infection that arises as a complication of kidney stones.
When they occur, fever and chills are usually a medical emergency. And so, the obstruction should immediately be dealt with through a procedure such as shock wave lithotripsy to enable antibiotics to pass through the obstructed area.
7. Smelly or cloudy urine
Urine that is healthy tends to be clear and without a strong odor, but turbid, smelly urine might indicate an infection. So, while foul-smelling or cloudy urine does not directly indicate kidney stones, it may point towards an infection that arises as a complication of renal stones.
Generally, more than 16-percent of people with acute kidney stones tend to have UTIs. And whether it occurs with or without fever, the combined presence of a UTI and kidney stones is a surgical emergency.
When should you see a doctor?
should see your doctor when you have agonizing pain, nausea, vomiting,
bloody, turbid or smelly urine, fever or chills. It is advisable to seek
immediate medical attention when you have pain that is so severe that
you can’t get comfortable.